International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) was established by UN Security Council Resolution 955 (1994) as a response to serious violations of humanitarian law committed in Rwanda and neighbouring states, and the threat to peace and security which they posed.
The ICTR has authority to prosecute genocide, crimes against humanity, and violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II, committed between 1 January and 31 December 1994 by Rwandans in the territory of Rwanda and in the territory of neighbouring States, as well as non-Rwandan citizens for crimes committed in Rwanda.
The ICTR delivered the first ever decision by an international tribunal on the crime of genocide and convicted, for the first time, a former head of state for the crime of genocide. In addition, the case law of the Tribunal has particularly contributed to the treatment of sexual offences in international criminal law.